Esophageal cancer

Oesophageal cancer - the incidence of malignant tumours of the oesophagus is 2.5-5 cases/100 000 people.

A esophaguscancer based on histological type can be squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The number of squamous cell carcinomas has been decreasing in recent years.

Risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, consumption of substances that cause mucosal irritation (e.g. hot foods, highly acidic substances), consumption of carcinogens (e.g. smoked foods), and vitamin and trace mineral deficiencies.

In particular, the esophaguslesions affecting the upper, and less commonly the middle third.

The number of adenocarcinomas has been increasing in recent years. It mainly affects the lower third, less frequently the middle third.

Predisposing factors include obesity, fatty food consumption, a diet low in fibre, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and the appearance of the latter, Barrett's metaplasia.

A esophagussymptoms of cancer (alarm or alarming symptoms) may include: difficulty swallowing, painful swallowing, weight loss, vomiting blood, spitting blood, black (pitchy) stools, difficulty breathing, hoarseness.

Less common symptoms, known as paraneoplastic symptoms, include decreased eye slit dilation, eyeball drooping, bone and joint pain, multiple calluses on the skin, symptoms associated with non-specific hormone overproduction, vascular inflammation, symptoms associated with high serum calcium levels.