Esophageal cancer

Oesophageal cancer - both benign and malignant tumours can occur in the oesophagus.

About 70 percent of benign lesions are leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours). They need to be monitored regularly if they are small, and surgically removed if they are large.

Less commonly, polyp-like growths and cystic lesions may also occur, which should also be monitored and removed if they increase in size.
A esophagusthe incidence of malignant tumours is 2.5-5 cases/100 000 people.

A esophageal cancerbased on the histological type, it can be squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The number of squamous cell carcinomas has been decreasing in recent years.

Risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, consumption of substances that cause mucosal irritation (e.g. hot foods, highly acidic substances), consumption of carcinogens (e.g. smoked foods), and vitamin and trace mineral deficiencies.

In particular, the esophaguslesions affecting the upper, and less commonly the middle third.

The number of adenocarcinomas has been increasing in recent years. It mainly affects the lower third, less frequently the middle third.

Predisposing factors include obesity, fatty food consumption, a diet low in fibre, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and the appearance of the latter, Barrett's metaplasia.